economy and morale, culminated in the February Revolution and the toppling of the imperial government in March 1917. Credit was discouraged, but widespread. United States Naval Institute. 100 The first stage (19171921 assumed that Communist revolutions would break out very soon in every major industrial country, and it was the Soviet responsibility to assist them. A Companion to Europe Since 1945. The Languages of the Soviet Union. 161 In 1991, the Soviet Union had a pipeline network of 82,000 kilometres (51,000 mi) for crude oil and another 206,500 kilometres (128,300 mi) for natural gas. 135 Judicial system Main article: Law of the Soviet Union See also: Socialist law The judiciary was not independent of the other branches of government. From 1932 to 1934, the Soviet Union participated in the World Disarmament Conference. 190 After heavy casualties in World War I and II, women outnumbered men in Russia by a 4:3 ratio. It was instrumental in the Stalinist terror, 121 but after the death of Stalin, the state security police was brought under strict party control. The People's War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union (2000) Vallin, Jacques; Meslé, France; Adamets, Serguei; and Pyrozhkov, Serhii. A b c Scheidel, Walter (2017). Another view of Stalin (1994 a highly favorable view from a Maoist historian Service, Robert. Due to rigid state planning and bureaucracy, the Soviets remained far behind technologically in chemistry, biology, and computers when compared to the First World. 103 A third stage came in the late 1920s and early 1930s, when Stalin ordered Communist parties across the world to strongly oppose non-communist political parties, labor unions or other organizations on the left. Penn State University Press. 146 Consumer goods, particularly outside large cities, were often scarce, of poor quality and limited choice.